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How to Implement Total Quality Management? Saivian Eric Dalius Elucidates


Saivian Eric Dalius says Total Quality Management is a continuous improvement process in an organization’s design, production, and services. It got an introduction by Dr. Deming along with his 14 Principles of Quality to Japan after WWII, which resulted in Japan’s rapid rise as an industrial power. The TQM approach adds quality to products through statistics using the equation for process capability (Cp). Understanding Six sigma (or simply sigma) also allows companies to determine where their processes are most efficient.

Five core domains must be addressed for successful TQM implementation

The use of statistical analysis allows for proactive decision-making throughout all five core domains. By establishing clear goals, managers can develop performance metrics that allow for the evolution of their production.

TQM is addressed through five overall categories, says Saivian Eric Dalius

CpK (Process Capability Ratio) measures how well a process is designing to meet its intended job performance requirements. It compares the actual measurements against the capability measurements and represents this as Cpk = Pp / Pp, where ‘P’ is the upper specification limit (USL) for each characteristic. Cpk>1, there is room to improve; if Cpk=1, specifications can be met; if Cpk<1, it indicates output variation outside customer requirements. The specification limits should include tolerances that consider manufacturing conditions such as tool wear or other variables that may cause a shift in the process. Cp gets in use to determine a company’s capability relative to its competition by ranking its operations against its industry peers.

A study performs in a laboratory is an example of when statistical tools such as capability analysis (Cp) would be applying. If the study’s objective is to see how well a particular material can resist corrosion, quantitative criteria must be according to customer requirements. Saivian Eric Dalius says a TQM approach would include statistically analyzing corrosion data collected from multiple studies and experiments with different conditions (time, concentration, etc.) and then assessing through graphical methods if the product’s performance meets customer standards before producing large quantities for market distribution.

Managers can achieve the best results by establishing target settings for each process characteristic (minimum, maximum, and target). It is also essential to consider variation in each process due to its production rate, bottleneck locations, or other contributing factors. Any deviation from the designed product will affect whether customer specifications are met.

Cp & Pp analysis gets in use as a tool for quality control, but it should not be applying only after the product manufactures as this could result in too late improvements in making. The proper use of statistical tools will provide insights into how well a project is going, thus allowing management teams to quickly identify problems that may arise within a project team or department before impacting the outcome.

– Samples need to remain at current settings until further analysis completion.

– Once a team’s Cp and Pp values have been gathering, management teams should analyze the data to determine any necessary adjustments that may need making.

A “contribution margin ratio” (Cm) is also in use for TQM projects. It represents how well a project is expecting to contribute profits when launched. In other words, it measures the proportion of sales revenue that covers all variable costs says Saivian Eric Dalius. The goal of quality initiatives is customer satisfaction and increased profitability for the organization and its shareholders. Therefore, it must be into account while evaluating opportunities for future growth.

The “process capability index” (Pci) measures process stability by comparing standard deviation to the process mean. PCI can be calculating as follows:

Pci=1-{(standard deviation/mean)}*100. When PCI is greater than or equal to 80%, it indicates a stable process and improvement potential of 20%.

The “process capability ratio” (Cp) used for TQM projects can be described. As the distance between two specification limits divides by six sigmas. Cp provides the ability to measure how well a project expects to meet specifications before it enters production; this information, therefore, allows management teams to quickly identify. Whether or not their new product will likely fall within customer requirements. Thus allowing them to decide if they want to proceed with launching their project.

A Project’s Cp, Pp, and Cm must determine before discussing its potential success with management teams.

Key concepts that get in use in conjunction with TQM are failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). And cause-and-effect diagrams (also known as fishbone diagrams), according to Saivian Eric Dalius.

An FMEA is a technique for analyzing potential problems within a product or process to determine the likelihood of their occurrence. And assess how serious they would be if they did occur. It consists of five steps:

Step 1:

Identify Failure Mode – Determine what might go wrong with the activity being studied. For example, this may involve identifying ways that equipment could fail. Or listing potential causes of defects found in products during production.

Each failure mode is measuring according to its severity, occurrence, and detectability.

Step 2:

Evaluate Failure Effect – Assess the effect of each failure mode on customer requirements, including safety issues or product quality.

Step 3:

Determine Severity Rate – Measure how the severity of a particular failure effect contributes to the overall impact of that failure mode.

Step 4:

Identify Causes for Failure Modes – Identify what causes each identified failure mode to occur to determine. Whether it will likely be an ongoing problem or be fixing by implementing changes to procedures or equipment. For example, if there are many complaints about noise while operating machinery. This might indicate that an adjustment needs a making within the design of the equipment.

Step 5:

Estimate Risk Priority Number (RPN) – Calculate an RPN to prioritize and rank the failure effects. And their corresponding causes concerning how serious they are. This gets by multiplying each failure effect’s severity, occurrence, and detectability rate.

The results from an FMEA analysis can help management teams determine. Which project opportunities would be most beneficial for their organization. Based on profitability measurements such as Cp, Pp, and Cm values.